In the past thirty years, significant advances have been made in the field of reproductive biology in unlocking the molecular and biochemical events that regulate spermatogenesis in the mammalian testis. It was possible because of the unprecedented breakthroughs in molecular biology, cell biology, immunology, and biochemistry.
In this book entitled, Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis, a collection of chapters has been included written by colleagues on the latest development in the field using genomic and proteomic approaches to study spermatogenesis, as well as different mechanisms and/or molecules including environmental toxicants and transcription factors that regulate and/or affect spermatogenesis. The book begins with a chapter that provides the basic concept of cellular regulation of spermatogenesis. A few chapters are also dedicated to some of the latest findings on the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton and other molecules (e.g., proteases, adhesion proteins) that regulate spermatogenesis. These chapters contain thought-provoking discussions and concepts which shall be welcomed by investigators in the field. It is obvious that many of these concepts will be updated and some may be amended in the years to come. However, they will serve as a guide and the basis for investigation by scientists in the field.
Inhaltsverzeichnis1. SPERMATOGENESIS AND CYCLE OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM Rex A. Hess and Luiz Renato de Franca Abstract Introduction Cellular Components-Stages of Spermatogenesis Phases of Spermatogenesis The Cycle and Wave of Spermatogenesis Sperm Production Regulation of the Cycle 2. TESTICULAR DEVELOPMENT AND SPERMATOGENESIS: HARVESTING THE POSTGENOMICS BOUNTY Antoine D. Rolland, Bernard J gou and Charles Pineau Introduction Gene Expression Profiling Technologies: The Underlying Differences Transcriptome and Transcriptomics Proteome and Proteomics Transcriptomics Versus Proteomics, Finding the Right Balance Gonad Development During Sex Determination Gene Expression Profiling in Spermatogonial Cells Postnatal Testis Development and Spermatogenesis Focus on Spermatozoa Hormonal Regulation of Spermatogenesis FSH Androgens Evolution and Reproduction The Complexity of Data Analysis: Towards Holistic Biology of Spermatogenesis Conclusions and Future Directions 3. ESTROGENS AND SPERMATOGENESIS Chandrima Shaha Introduction Estrogens and Antiestrogens Overview of Spermatogenesis The Gonadotropins and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadal Axis Biosynthesis of Estrogens and Sites of Estrogen Biosynthesis in the Testis Distribution of Estrogen Receptors in the Testis Estrogen Receptor and Aromatase Knockout Mice and their Phenotypes Effects of Estrogen Administration on Testicular Function Studies on Xenoestrogens Estrogen Deprivation and Spermatogenesis Estrogens and Germ Cell Apoptosis Future Directions 4. SELENIUM, A KEY ELEMENT IN SPERMATOGENESIS AND MALE FERTILITY Carla Boitani and Rossella Puglisi Abstract Introduction The Selenoproteins of the Male Gonad PHGPx/GPx4 Selenoprotein P Nutritional Considerations Clinical Implications 5. EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX AND ITS ROLE IN SPERMATOGENESIS Michelle K.Y. Siu and C. Yan Cheng Abstract Introduction Unique Features of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) in the Testis Functions of the Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) Collagen IV TNFa Ectoplasmic Specialization (ES) Integrin: The First FA Component Found at the Apical ES Laminin 333 and a6b1 Integrin form a Bona Fide Complex at the Apical ES Proteolysis of Laminin by MMP-2 and MT1-MMP Regulate Apical ES Dynamics FA Complexes at the Apical ES Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 6. INFLAMMATORY NETWORKS IN THE CONTROL OF SPERMATOGENESIS: CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN AN IMMUNOLOGICALLY PRIVILEGED TISSUE Moira K. O Bryan and Mark P. Hedger Abstract Background Production, Regulation and Actions of Inflammatory Mediators in the Seminiferous Epithelium Cytokines in the Regulation of Normal Spermatogenesis What Should We Believe? Inflammation and Testis Function Role of Inflammator y Mediators and Implications for Fertility 7. TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION IN SPERMATOGENESIS Wing-Yee Lui and C. Yan Cheng Introduction Transcription Regulation in Spermatogenesis Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 8. PROTEASES AND THEIR COGNATE INHIBITORS OF THE SERINE AND METALLOPROTEASE SUBCLASSES, IN TESTICULAR PHYSIOLOGY Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni General Aspects of Proteases and Protease Inhibitors An Overview of the Repertoire in Testis What Potential Functions in Testicular Physiology? Conclusions and Future Directions 9. ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEMS AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE TESTES <