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Frank Gaffikin & Mike Morrissey 
Planning in Divided Cities 

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Cover of Frank Gaffikin & Mike Morrissey: Planning in Divided Cities (ePUB)



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Does planning in contested cities inadvertedly make the divisionsworse? The 60s and 70s saw a strong role of planning, socialengineering, etc but there has since been a move towards a moredecentralised ‘community planning’ approach.

The book examines urban planning and policy in the context ofdeeply contested space, where place identity and culturalaffinities are reshaping cities. Throughout the world, contentionsaround identity and territory abound, and in Britain, this problemhas found recent expression in debates about multiculturalism andsocial cohesion. These issues are most visible in the urban arena, where socially polarised communities co-habit cities also marked bydivided ethnic loyalties. The relationship between the two iscomplicated by the typical pattern that social disadvantage isdisproportionately concentrated among ethnic groups, who alsoexperience a social and cultural estrangement, based on religiousor racial identity.

Navigating between social exclusion and community cohesion isessential for the urban challenges of efficient resource use, environmental enhancement, and the development of a flourishingeconomy.

The book addresses planning in divided cities in a UK andinternational context, examining cities such as Chicago, hyper-segregated around race, and Jerusalem, acting as a cruciblefor a wider conflict.

The first section deals with concepts and theories, examiningthe research literature and situating the issue within the urbanchallenges of competitiveness and inclusion. Section 2 coverscollaborative planning and identifies models of planning, policyand urban governance that can operate in contested space. Section 3presents case studies from Belfast, Chicago and Jerusalem, examining both the historical/contemporary features of these citiesand their potential trajectories. The final section offersconclusions and ways forward, drawing the lessons for creatingshared space in a pluralist cities and addressing cohesion andmulticulturalism.

* Addresses important contemporary issue of socialcohesion vs. urban competitiveness
* focus on impact of government policies will appeal topractitioners in urban management, local government andregeneration
* Examines role of planning in cities worldwide dividedby religion, race, socio-economic, etc
* Explores debate about contested space in urbanpolicy and planning
* Identifies models for understanding contested spacesin cities as a way of improving effectiveness of governmentpolicy
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Table of Content

Preface and Acknowledgements vii

Part I Introduction 1

1 Introduction 3

Setting the Scene 3

Outline of Structure and Argument 5

2 Conflict in the Changing City 13

Forms of Urban Division 19

3 Understanding the Urban 23

Farewell to Keynesian-Fordist Industrialism and Welfarism? 33

Globalisation and Neo-Liberalism 37

Urban Regime Theory 40

Beyond the First World lens 43

Making Sense of the Debate 45

4 The Divided City 53

Introduction 53

Explanations of Division 58

Ethnicity and Urban Conflict 66

Ethno-Nationalist Contest 79

The State of Conflict and Conflict in the State 82

5 Identity, Space, and Urban Planning 85

Identity and Diversity 85

Multiculturalism and Cosmopolitanism 89

Space and its Contestations 96

Policy and Planning Responses to Diversity 105

6 Collaborative Planning and the Divided City 115

Shifts in Planning 115

The Role of Collaborative Planning 118

Development and Division 132

Part II Case Studies 141

7 Development Amid Division in US Cities: The Cases of Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Chicago 143

Introduction 143

Pittsburgh: History of Partnership? 146

Cleveland–‘mistake on the lake’? 158

Chicago: the ‘spectacular’ City 168

Race and Division 170

Divided City: Whose Regeneration? 181

8 Contested Space, Contested Sovereignty: The Case of Belfast 197

Introduction: An Unresolved Sovereignty Contest 197

Space and Political Violence 203

Residential Segregation and Spatial Deprivation After the Conflict 209

Profiling Segregated Spaces 212

Segregation and Deprivation 215

Summarising the Divided City 219

Tackling Division and Deprivation: A Difficult Agenda 220

Community Cohesion and Economic Austerity 222

Moving Forward: The Role of Planning 224

Facing the Future 228

9 Between Sovereignty and Pluralism: Other Divided Cities 231

Divided Country–Divided City: Nicosia 233

Divided Cities in Britain: Oldham and Bradford 240

Promoting Community Cohesion in Oldham 242

Bradford: From Ethnic to Shared Space? 246

Conclusions 252

Part III Conclusion 255

10 Planning Amid Division: A Way Forward? 257

Introduction: The Formidable Task 257

The Paradoxes of Peace Building 258

Planning Shared Futures in Divided Cities 260

The Paradoxes of Planning in Divided Cities 263

The Problem of Community 265

From Community Development to Community Capacity 266

The Role of Planning in Narrowing Contest 270

Implications for Planning, Governance, and Capacity 272

Final Considerations 275

Bibliography 279

Appendix: Methodology 315

Index 319

About the author

Professor Frank Gaffikin (Director of Research) and Professor Mike Morrissey: both of the Institute of Spatial and Environmental Planning, School of Planning and Civil Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast
Language English ● Format EPUB ● Pages 336 ● ISBN 9781444393194 ● File size 1.0 MB ● Publisher John Wiley & Sons ● Published 2011 ● Downloadable 24 months ● Currency EUR ● ID 2390228 ● Copy protection Adobe DRM
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